Neural Zoomer Plus

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Neural Zoomer Plus

An expanded test to detect 48 of the most common autoantibodies associated with neurological autoimmunity and cognitive decline

The Vibrant Neural ZoomerTM includes a comprehensive set of autoimmune markers, from a single serum draw including:

Demyelination Antigens

Anti-Tubulin – Associated with alcoholic liver disease, demyelinating disease, Grave’s disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, infectious agent exposure PANDAS/ANDAS/OCD, rheumatoid arthritis, and recent onset type 1 diabetes.

Anti-Myelin basic protein – Related to the risk for multiple sclerosis, autism, PANDAS/ANDAS/OCD, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Anti-Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) – Found in various demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), idiopathic optic neuritis (ON), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), Devic’s disease, and tumefactive demyelinating disease.

Anti-Myelin proteolipid protein – A useful marker in patients with seronegative anti-myelin basic protein, the frequent marker in active multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis.

Anti-Neurofascin – Found mainly in combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD), a rare demyelinating condition affecting both CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) tissues, and also in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and axonal injury in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Anti-MAG – Anti-MAG peripheral neuropathy is a very rare disease caused by anti-MAG antibodies that destroy MAG protein leading to disruptions of normal myelin production and healthy peripheral nerve activity.

Blood Brain Barrier Disruption

Anti-s100b – Blood brain barrier integrity breach and sub-concussive episodes lead to the production of this antibody. Extravasated s100B may trigger a pathologic autoimmune reaction linking systemic and CNS immune responses.

Anti-Glial fibrillary acidic protein – Anti-GFAP is produced when the protein enters the bloodstream after a rupture of the blood brain barrier, thus serves as a blood based diagnostic marker of brain injury.

Anti-Microglia – Indicate a destruction of the blood brain barrier and are found to play a role in tissue destruction of Alzheimer’s disease.

Anti-Glucose regulated protein 78 – Glucose-regulated protein 78–targeted antibodies could instigate bloodbrain barrier breakdown and development of hallmark anti–aquaporin-4 autoantibody pathology.

Optical and Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

Anti-Neuron specific enolase – Antibodies against neuron specific enolase are found in patients with optical neuropathies.

Anti-Aquaporin 4 – AQP4 IgG is involved in the development of neuromyelitis optica and revolutionized the understanding of the disease. Anti-Aquaporin4 antibodies have also been shown in patients with peripheral demyelination.

Anti-Recoverin – One of the key components of antibody disorders of the CNS. They have also been shown to be associated with retinopathy which is characterized by impaired vision and photosensitivity.

Anti-CV2 – Seen in autoimmune paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy and mixed axonal and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy

Anti-GM1 – Associated with multi-focal motor neuropathy and lower motor neuropathy, characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy

Anti-GM2 – A potential peripheral nerve antigen for neuropathy-associated autoantibodies

Anti-Hu – The most frequent manifestation of sensory neuropathy with frequent autonomic involvement

Anti-Ri – Can be detected in patients with the paraneoplastic opsoclonus/myoclonus syndrome. Neoplasms most often associated with anti-Ri include breast cancer, gynecological cancers, and small cell lung cancer.

Anti-Amphiphysin – Often found in the serum of patients with stiff-person syndrome

Neuromuscular disorders

Anti-Acetylcholine receptors – Found in myasthenia gravis disease which destroys the receptor function, leading to a neuromuscular transmission defect, which then causes hypofunction, fatigue, and inflammation of skeletal muscles and produces serum antibodies against muscle antigens

Anti-Muscle specific kinase – An important marker in patients without anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in myasthenia gravis disease

Anti-Voltage gated calcium channels – Responsible for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), a rare autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction

Anti-Voltage gated potassium channels – Downregulate the potassium channels expressed on the peripheral nerve terminal leading to nerve hyperexcitability

Anti-Titin – Present in 70–90% of thymoma autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) patients, and in approximately 50% of late-onset acetylcholine-MG patients without thymoma

Brain Autoimmunity

Anti-Purkinje cell – Autoimmunity to a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum, which can produce abnormalities and decline in gross motor functions

Anti-Yo – Suggest that a patient with neurologic symptoms has a paraneoplastic syndrome. In addition, their presence also often suggests the nature of the underlying tumor.

Anti-Amyloid beta (25-35) – Levels of autoantibodies reacting with oligomers of the short, neurotoxic fragment Aβ (25-35) are significantly higher in AD patients than in healthy controls

Anti-Amyloid beta (1-42) – A signature marker in Alzheimer’s disease

Anti-RAGE peptide – Found in Alzheimer’s disease patients, and particularly higher in AD patients with diabetes

Anti-Tau – Found in the neurofibrillary tangles in brains of individuals who have Alzheimer’s disease

Anti-Glutamate – Found in epilepsy, encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE, Sjogren’s syndrome, schizophrenia, mania or stroke

Anti-Dopamine – Associated with movement disorders characterized by parkinsonism, dystonia, and Sydenham chorea

Anti-Hydroxytryptamine – Found mainly in autoimmune encephalitis

Anti-Alpha-synuclein – Mainly elevated in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease

Anti-α1 and β2 adrenergic receptors – Found mainly in patients with different dementia forms such as unclassified, Lewy body, vascular, and Alzheimer’s dementia

Anti-Endothelin A receptor – Found in vascular dementia

Brain Inflammation

Anti-NMDA receptor – Found in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis

Anti-AMPA receptor – May play a role in Alzheimer’s disease, characterized by decreased AMPA activation and synapse loss

Anti-Dopamine receptors – Associated with Parkinson’s disease and other disorders of low dopamine status

Anti-GABA receptors – Associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) and other neurodegenerative disorders that involve disruptions in gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) signaling

Anti-Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein 6 – Associated with encephalitis

Anti-Glycine receptor – Helpful in the diagnosis of patients with symptoms and signs that include ocular motor and other brainstem dysfunction, hyperekplexia, stiffness, rigidity, myoclonus and spasms

Anti-Neurexin 3 – Associated with a severe but potentially treatable encephalitis in which the antibodies cause a decrease of neurexin-3α and alter synapse development

Anti-Contactin-associated protein-like 2 – Diseases associated with CNTNAP2 include Pitt-Hopkins-Like Syndrome 1 and Autism 15

Anti-Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 – LGI1 antibody–associated encephalitis has increasingly been recognized as a primary autoimmune disorder

Anti-Ma – Present in men with testicular tumors and isolated or combined limbic encephalitis (LE), diencephalic encephalitis (DE), or brainstem encephalitis (BE)

Infections

Anti-HSV-1 – HSV-1 has been reported to have a pathogenesis role in Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and seropositivity to HSV-1 antibodies has been correlated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease

Anti-HSV-2 – Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a disorder commonly associated with HSV-2. HSE due to HSV-2 may occur without meningitis features. Antibodies against HSV-2 have shown positive correlation in patients with symptoms of HSE.

Anti-EBV – Antibodies against the EBV nuclear antigen complex (EBNAc) and EBNA-1 have been correlated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Anti-CMV – Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections have been reported frequently to be associated with Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). There is a potential for molecular mimicry between GM2 and antigens induced by CMV infection.

Anti-HHV-6 – Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is frequently associated with neurologic diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), epilepsy, encephalitis, and febrile illness.

Anti-HHV-7 – HHV-7 has been less frequently associated with CNS disease than HHV-6, but found to be associated with encephalitis, meningitis, and demyelinating conditions. Similar to HHV 6A, increased levels of HHV-7 were found in multiple brain regions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients.

Anti-Streptococcal A – Anti-streptococcal A antibodies are shown to cross react with different brain proteins that could lead to neuropsychiatric symptoms including PANDAS characterized by pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorder, and Sydenham Chorea.

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